All about Diabetes

This is one of the best explanation of diabetes friends.

What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is body's inability to regulate the level of glucose in blood. The body breaks down food into glucose and uses it as a source of energy.
Insulin, a hormone produced by pancreas, helps to regulate the level of glucose in blood. If the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use the produced insulin effectively then it results in high level of glucose in the blood. It is known as Hyperglycemia.

What are the types of diabetes?
There are four types of diabetes: Type 1 - insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Type 2 - Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Gestational diabetes - pregnancy induced diabetes and Secondary diabetes mellitus - caused by genetic conditions or pancreatic disease.

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in children and young adults and was previously known as juvenile diabetes. In this type of diabetes, body does not produce insulin.

Type 2 diabetes is formerly known as adult-onset diabetes. People can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with excess weight, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, previous history of gestational diabetes, and certain ethnicities.
Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition linked to excess weight in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin properly.

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that develops only during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes affects 2 to 10 percent of all pregnancies.
The hormones produced during pregnancy increase the amount of insulin needed to control blood glucose levels. If the body can't meet this increased need for insulin, women can develop gestational diabetes during the late stages of pregnancy.

Other types of diabetes include those caused by genetic defects, diseases of the pancreas, excess amounts of certain hormones resulting from some medical conditions, medications that reduce insulin action, chemicals that destroy beta cells, infections and genetic syndromes associated with diabetes.
Pre-diabetes is when blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Pre-diabetes means a person is at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, as well as for heart disease and stroke.
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
People suffering with diabetes may have symptoms like increased thirst, hunger, blurred vision, fatigue, weight loss, skin infection, vaginal and urinary infection and frequent stomach upset.

What are the tests done to diagnose diabetes?
Various physical tests are done to diagnose diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose test is one of them. In this test, a person is asked to fast overnight or at least 8 hours and the level of glucose in blood is then checked.
The normal range of fasting blood glucose level is between 70 and 110 mg/dl. If the fasting plasma glucose level is higher than 126 mg/dl then it is indicated as diabetes mellitus. Glucose level between 110 and 126 mg/dl are indicated as impaired fasting glucose level.
Post prandial (PP) plasma glucose test is done two hours after having a meal, which serves as a challenge for the body to regulate the blood sugar.
Normal PP levels are less than 140 mg/dl. A glucose level more than 200 mg/dl indicates diabetes mellitus. While levels between 140 and 199 mg/dl are referred as impaired diabetes mellitus.
Random Plasma glucose test is another test done to diagnose diabetes mellitus. The glucose level above 200 mg/dl indicates diabetes.
Oral glucose challenge test (oGTT) is done 2 hours after giving 75 gm glucose by mouth. This test is helpful in detecting borderline diabetes and a condition called borderline diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test is suggested to diagnose pregnancy induced diabetes. All the pregnant women needs to get this test done 30 minutes after taking 50 gm of glucose.
If the results of oral glucose tolerance test are abnormal then the pregnant women need to undergo oGTT with 100 gm of glucose and not 75 g glucose as in the conventional test.
A1C test is used to detect type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes but is not recommended for diagnosis of type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes.
A1C test is also called as hemoglobin A1C, HbA1c, or glycolhemoglobin test. A1C test report the results in percentage. A normal A1C level is below 5.7 percent.
An A1C test result of 5.7 to 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. People with an A1C above 6.0 percent should be considered at very high risk of developing diabetes. A level of 6.5 percent or above means a person has diabetes.

Am I at risk of developing diabetes?
It is suggested that people older than 45 years should get tested for diabetes. Especially those who are obese or over weight.
The risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus are: physical inactivity, parents or siblings with diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, high blood pressure, high density lipoprotein i.e. low HDL or high LDL cholesterol levels, etc.
People with history of cardiovascular disease are also at risk of developing diabetes mellitus.
Women who have given birth to at least one baby weighing more than 9 pounds are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
If your BMI (Body Mass Index) is not in normal range then chances of developing diabetes are higher at the later stage. Keep track of your body mass ratio.
Untreated sleep problems, especially sleep apnea, can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Night shift workers who have problem with sleepiness may also have increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
If you have a family history of diabetes then the chances of you developing the diabetes are high. It is suggested to keep a track of your blood sugar levels. more  

View all 30 comments Below 30 comments
Dear Bhatia ji. thanks for vital information. This must be disseminated on the social media. Ram Yadav more  
Dear Ms.Vinita ji. Dear Ms.Vinita Ji.I noted that you are doing good work in the Diabetes .You can also interact with my daughter who is doing practice in the same field in Australia and webpage is: NUTRIVORE. more  
This refers to inquiry by Mr. Amar Nath jii, - regarding some cheap Blood Glucometer. I do agree with his concern. But I do have to add, the RELIABLE Blood testing is the first step and it has to be monitored on a very regular basis, before it is too late. So better go by the advise - of your trusted Doctor. Of course lot of cheap testing is available for blood, blood pressure etc. But try to manage the best under the circumstances. more  
Dear Vinitaji- Thanks a lot once again for posting your article on DM. Could you please throw some light on any locally available cheaper/newer Blood Glucometer/strips for checking Blood sugar. About a year or two back, I saw a news item in the press about an innovative R&D initiative in IIT Delhi which hinted at a single measurement costing only about Rs.4/- or so. Do you have any idea of availability of any such product in the market? Also, is there any early possibility of a prickless blood-sugar measurement? Such products can significantly reduce a diabetic patient's both physical and financial pains. Any inputs in this dimension will certainly be very helpful. Kindly enlighten. Best regards more  
Madam Vinita ji, Thanks your articles are always very informative. I am keenly following your articles. And I do appreciate the labor you put to educate the masses. Thanks, keep informing us - which are very important to know. more  
Post a Comment

Related Posts

    • Covid is the trigger

      Covid isn’t a single event. It’s a trigger. It triggers new medical conditions. Preexisting conditions are exacerbated. It reactivates latent viruses. You age decades. Dysfunctional imm...

      By Anita Gupta
    • Long Covid symptoms (neurological)

      Most common symptoms of the post-COVID-19 neurologic syndrome reported from 3,762 participants were as follows. LocalCircles must check with people with long covid in India as to what they are expe...

      By Malvika N
    • The only race is of survival

      My close friend (40) who died this week in Melbourne had covid 3 times. The first time wasn’t so bad, the second one knocked him around pretty badly, and the third time he died of it. We&rsqu...

      By Irene Willems
    • Events happening

      Whether it is business or social events, they are happening across the country though cases are rising. Business media houses are organising them. Why is it that the desire to make money is so much...

      By Sangita Baruah
    • By Nikita Goyal
    • Supreme Court says vaccine not mandatory

      The Supreme Court today held so as no substantial data has been produced on record to show that the risk of transmission of COVID-19 virus from the unvaccinated persons are higher than from vaccina...

      By Shailesh Deshmukh
    • Science vs Politics

      With BA.4 and BA.5 on the horizon and liver problems on the rise, we are soon to have an epic battle of science vs. politics in most countries around the world. Most politicians have dr...

      By Shikha Mittal
    • Discipline

      Devil's advocate argument is that government could be wanting to make wearing a mask a habit among people, and those driving around have a greater responsibility, especially the affluent, in this c...

      By Ashish Rai
    • Vaccines not much helpful post Omicron infections

      The additive benefit of vaccination with Omicron infection for neutralizing antibodies as compared with infection alone is much lower anticipated protection across all variants, including Omicron i...

      By Harsimran Kaur
    • Open up booster for 45+ instead of 60+

      Last year in March, when the vaccination was opened up for the common citizens, it was for the age of 45 and above. All those above 45 (including 60+) living in a house, who wanted to get vaccinate...

      By Padmanabhan G
    • NeoCov - 1 in 3 dies

      Sorry I am the bearer of bad news. Scientists from China’s Wuhan have warned of a new type of coronavirus NeoCov in South Africa with high daeth and transmission rate

      By Sangita Baruah
Enter your email and mobile number and we will send you the instructions

Note - The email can sometime gets delivered to the spam folder, so the instruction will be send to your mobile as well

All My Circles
Invite to
(Maximum 500 email ids allowed.)