What is prostate cancer screening? — Prostate cancer screening is a way in which doctors check the prostate gland for signs of cancer. In men, this gland sits below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It forms a ring around the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body . (Women do not have a prostate gland.)
The main test used to screen for prostate cancer is a blood test called a “PSA test.” Some men also have an exam called a rectal exam. Prostate cancer screening is done in men who have no symptoms of the disease.
Who should be screened for prostate cancer? — It is not clear whether getting screened for prostate cancer can extend a man’s life or help him avoid any symptoms or problems. For this reason, doctors do not know who—if anyone—should be screened for prostate cancer.
Most experts recommend that each man work with his doctor to decide whether screening is right for him. In most cases, men should start discussing prostate cancer screening around the age of 50. Most doctors recommend against screening for men age 75 or older, or for men with serious health problems.
Why do doctors offer screening? — Doctors offer screening in the hopes of catching prostate cancer early—before it has a chance to grow, spread, or cause symptoms. With many cancers, catching the disease early is an important part of effective treatment. But prostate cancer is not like many other cancers. It usually grows slowly and does not usually lead to death. The problem is that a small number of prostate cancers are serious and can lead to death. Doctors have no ideal way to tell which prostate cancers are deadly and which ones would never cause any problems. Certain tests can suggest which prostate cancers might be more likely to cause problems. But the tests are far from perfect.
To make matters more confusing, different studies draw different conclusions about the benefits of prostate cancer screening. One big study found that screening lowers the risk of dying from prostate cancer. Another big study found that it does not.
What are the drawbacks to getting screened? — PSA tests have 2 main drawbacks:
PSA tests sometimes give “false positives,” meaning they indicate cancer when there is no cancer. This can lead to unneeded worry and to further tests—including 1 test (a biopsy) that can be painful.
When PSA tests lead to the discovery of cancer, there is no way to tell whether the cancer is 1 that could do harm. That means that men sometimes get treated for cancers that would not have done them any harm. That’s a problem because treatment for prostate cancer has risks and often causes problems of its own. For instance, prostate cancer treatment can cause men to leak urine and to have problems with sex.
How do I decide if I should be screened? — Work with your doctor or nurse to decide if screening is right for you. As you are deciding, think about how likely it is that you will get prostate cancer. Black men and men who have a brother or father with the disease are more likely than other men to get it. For men with a high risk of prostate cancer, screening might be a good idea.
Think, too, about how you feel about the possible benefits and harms of being screened. Ask yourself:
Do I want to know if I have prostate cancer, even if the cancer might never do me any harm?
Would I be treated if I learned that I had prostate cancer?
How do I feel about the risks of being treated for prostate cancer?
How do I feel about the risks of getting a deadly or aggressive form of prostate cancer?
Would I be willing to accept a high risk of side effects from treatment in return for a small chance of living longer?
What is a PSA test? — PSA stands for “prostate-specific antigen.” PSA is a protein made by the prostate. Levels of this protein go up when a man has prostate cancer. The protein also goes up for reasons that do NOT involve cancer. For example, PSA levels rise when a man:
Has a condition called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), sometimes called an enlarged prostate
Has a prostate infection, also called prostatitis
Hurts his prostate, for example while riding a bike
Ejaculates (has an orgasm)
What if my PSA level is too high? — If your PSA level is high, do not panic. It’s possible your PSA is high for reasons unrelated to cancer. The first thing to do is to have the PSA test again. For 2 days before the second test, avoid ejaculating and bike-riding. If your doctor thinks you have a prostate infection, you might also need to take antibiotics for a while before you repeat the test.
If your PSA is still high on the second test, you will probably need a biopsy. That means that a doctor will insert a needle into your prostate to take tiny samples of tissue. Those samples will then go to the lab to be checked for cancer.
If it turns out you do have cancer, remember that prostate cancer is not usually deadly. It usually grows slowly, so you probably have time to decide what to do. There are treatments that can sometimes cure prostate cancer. But men sometimes hold off on having treatment and wait to see if their cancer shows signs of progressing.
How often should a man be screened for prostate cancer? — For those who decide to be screened, experts recommend starting at age 50 and repeating screening very 2 to 4 years. Men with risk factors for prostate cancer (such as black men or men with a family history of prostate cancer) might want to begin screening at age 40 to 45.
Men can stop being screened when they turn 75 or if they develop serious health problems. In these cases, the benefits of screening are not worth the possible harms. more
On the other aspect the activity you are consudered is not related with prostate cancer. Even other secretions or even harmonal therapy of sex harmones does not cause any prostate cancer.
Multiple studies have looked at the relationship between serum levels of various sex hormones and the risk of developing prostate cancer. The most definitive data regarding the relationship between serum sex hormone levels and prostate cancer come from a pooled analysis of 18 prospective trials, which included 3886 men with prostate cancer and 6438 controls. Serum concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and other active androgen derivatives obtained prior to diagnosis were NOT associated with an increased risk of subsequent prostate cancer. In addition, no association was seen with prediagnosis serum levels of estrogens (estradiol, free estradiol).
In addition, testosterone supplementation as a treatment for hypogonadism does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, although monitoring for prostate abnormalities is recommended. more
For patients managed with medical orchiectomy, using an antiandrogen for two to four weeks during GnRH agonist initiation to prevent a disease flare due to the transient increase in testosterone levels (Grade 2B), is suggested.Use of the GnRH antagonist degarelix is an alternative.
Please note for men with low volume disease (ie, no visceral metastases and less than four bone metastases), we suggest treatment with ADT alone rather than chemohormonal therapy.
For the second part the goserelin causes an initial increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), chronic administration of goserelin results in a sustained suppression of pituitary gonadotropins. Serum testosterone falls to levels comparable to surgical castration. The exact mechanism of this effect is unknown, but may be related to changes in the control of LH or down-regulation of LH receptors and thereby activation of neuropeptides that cause weight gain and not directly related with the therapy working or not or the progression of the desease. well in some medications such as TKIs given in lung cancer a side affect may also be a benchmark for therapy response but surely not in this case. wish this helps. more